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Isu Semasa

Berikut adalah isu semasa yang hangat diperkatakan kini:

 

Tekanan guru tidak seperti didakwa KPPK


KAJIAN universiti mendapati kerjaya perguruan adalah rutin dan tidak mencabar. - Gambar hiasan.

KAJIAN mendapati tugasan guru tidaklah berisiko tinggi, atau berhadapan dengan tekanan kerja - bertentangan dengan kebimbangan Kesatuan Perkhidmatan Perguruan Kebangsan (KPPK) berhubung kerjaya itu.

Kesatuan itu baru-baru ini mengeluarkan kenyataan kontroversi, dengan mendakwa setiap hari guru disaman oleh pihak luar dan ini telah menyumbang kepada ketakutan dalam kalangan guru dan seterusnya memberi tekanan kepada mereka.

Kajian bersama oleh pensyarah dari dua buah universiti awam tempatan itu mendapati, kerja yang berkaitan profesion perguruan seperti pengajaran dan pembelajaran adalah kerja rutin dan tidak mencabar.

Penyelidikan dilakukan oleh pensyarah Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Cawangan Segamat, Noordin Yahaya dan Sharifudin Ismail, dan pensyarah Fakulti Pendidikan, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Prof. Madya Dr. Azizi Yahaya.

Kajian bersama itu bertajuk Tingkah Laku Kepimpinan Pengetua dan Hubungannya dengan Tekanan Kerja dan Keberkesanan Organisasi, Di Beberapa Buah Sekolah Terpilih Di Negeri Sembilan.

Kajian bertujuan melihat hubungan antara tingkah laku kepimpinan pengetua, tekanan yang dialami oleh guru dan keberkesanan organisasi di beberapa buah sekolah luar bandar di kawasan pentadbiran Pejabat Pelajaran Daerah (PPD) Seremban-Port Dickson dan kawasan pentadbiran PPD Rembau-Tampin.

Kertas kerja itu dibentangkan semasa Seminar Nasional Pengurusan dan Kepimpinan Pendidikan Ke-12 di Genting Highlands, Pahang, baru-baru ini.

Menurut penyelidik berkenaan, beban kerja guru tiada kaitan dengan keberkesanan organisasi sekolah.

Ini kerana tambahan beban itu tiada kaitan dengan peningkatan produktiviti guru.

Walau bagaimanapun, kajian mendapati kecekapan pengetua ada kesannya kepada organisasi sekolah yang ditadbirnya.

Pengetua yang baik dari segi kepimpinan boleh memotivasikan guru dan menambah keberkesanan organisasi sekolah, menurut kajian itu.

Kertas kerja itu turut mencadangkan beberapa langkah untuk meningkatkan prestasi kepimpinan guru iaitu:

1. Bengkel dan latihan patut dianjurkan untuk meningkatkan mutu kepimpinan dalam bidang hubungan manusia, kemahiran interpersonal dan kemahiran teknikal.

2. Latihan kepekaan yang memberi fokus kepada hubungan manusia dan kemahiran interpersonal boleh memberi peluang pengetua untuk mengenali diri mereka dan kesan tingkah laku terhadap orang lain.

Kemahiran dan pengetahuan yang diperoleh oleh pengetua boleh digunakan untuk memotivasikan staf di bawah kepimpinannya.

3. Pengetua hendaklah diberi peluang untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan teknikal seperti kepimpinan pembelajaran, pembinaan kurikulum dan kaedah pembelajaran.

4. Pendedahan terhadap pengurusan sumber manusia hendaklah dijalankan yang memberikan penekanan amalan peningkatan produktiviti dan teknik memotivasikan kakitangan dibawahnya. Pengetahuan dan kemahiran ini juga dapat menyokong pengetua merancang program perkembangan staf.

5. Sebelum dilantik ke jawatan pengetua, bakal pengetua hendaklah mengikuti beberapa kursus yang melibatkan pentadbiran sekolah. Ini boleh mengelakkan pengetua memulakan pengendalian sekolah melalui proses trial and error.

 

Mara kenal pasti tiga lagi negara untuk hantar pelajar


MARA mengenal pasti sekurang-kurangnya tiga lagi negara berpotensi sebagai destinasi baru penghantaran pelajar tajaannya memasuki universiti terkemuka di bawah Skim Pelajar Cemerlang (SPC).

Ketua Pengarahnya, Datuk Zamani Md Noor, berkata negara terbabit ialah Ukraine, Mesir dan Jordan yang didapati sesuai untuk pengajian tinggi dalam bidang kritikal, khususnya perubatan serta kejuruteraan.

Katanya, perbincangan sudah diadakan dengan pihak Ukraine, baru-baru ini, mengenai cadangan Mara menghantar pelajar cemerlang mengikuti pengajian kejuruteraan, terutama dalam bidang aviasi, di negara berkenaan.

Bagi kemasukan universiti tersohor di Mesir dan Jordan pula, beliau berkata, penghantaran tertumpu kepada pelajar dalam bidang perubatan.

“Cadangan ini adalah antara usaha giat Mara untuk memperluas destinasi penghantaran pelajar ke luar negara di bawah program SPC.

“Ukraine satu daripadanya dan Universiti Kuala Lumpur akan berperanan melaksanakan program persediaan pelajar nanti.

“Sekarang baru peringkat perbincangan, bagaimanapun sasaran kita memulakannya tahun ini,” katanya kepada Berita Harian.

Tahun ini, Mara akan menghantar 715 lulusan cemerlang Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) 2003 ke universiti terkemuka di 10 negara membabitkan peruntukan RM65 juta di bawah SPC.

Daripada jumlah itu, seramai 201 pelajar akan dihantar ke universiti di Britain, diikuti Australia (116), Ireland (97), Indonesia (72), Amerika Syarikat (62), Jerman (60), Russia (50), India (30), Perancis (16) dan New Zealand (11).

Zamani berkata, perbincangan juga diadakan dengan Russia mengenai cadangan menghantar pelajar ke negara itu bagi mengikuti pengajian kejuruteraan, terutama dalam bidang aviasi seperti di Ukraine.

Justeru, katanya, seramai 50 lulusan cemerlang SPM tahun lalu akan dipilih mengikuti pengajian di Russia dan Ukraine.

Beliau berkata, pencarian destinasi baru itu sejajar dengan sasaran Mara untuk menghentikan penghantaran pelajar di bawah SPC ke United Kingdom (UK) berikutan kos yang tinggi.

Walaupun tidak menetapkan tempoh khusus menghentikan penghantaran itu, katanya, ia akan dilakukan secepat mungkin dengan mengurangkan bilangan pelajar dari semasa ke semasa.

“Memang ada arahan kerajaan supaya menghentikan penghantaran pelajar tajaan Mara ke UK kerana membabitkan kos amat tinggi, malah semakin meningkat.

“Justeru, Mara akan berusaha mencari destinasi baru untuk menghantar pelajar cemerlang. Ada juga yang mencadangkan Jamaica, usul ini akan diteliti,” katanya.

 
Burden on parent and child
BY S. INDRAMALAR AND TAN SHIOW CHIN

WHEN both parents and students start suffering from homework-induced anxiety, it is time to sound the alarm bells! Whether from making sure their children do their homework or trying to them with it, many parents admit that they too feel the burden of excessive homework. 

“At first, the problem was making sure my children complete all their homework before school the next day. But as they grow older I find myself getting stressed when I cannot help them with their work. Some of their Maths problems are beyond me.  

“As for the Bahasa Malaysia passages, I have problems understanding many of the words and phrases. How can Ihelp them?” laments parent Chan Yoke Leng. 

Excessive homework often leaves no time for students to have fun.
Rita Mohan, another mother snowed under with homework, says she spends at least three hours every night going through her daughters’ work. 

“When I am at work, I have to call home a few times to bug my children to do their homework and to ask my maid to make sure they are not watching TV. I come home at about six and after dinner, I sit with my kids and go through their work, helping them with questions they don’t understand.  

“I do not have time for much else on week days. I don’t remember things being like this when I was a student,” she says. 

The root of the problem, says retired teacher Marian Tan, is the misconception about homework. 

“I think teachers, parents and students have all forgotten what homework is for. Homework should be a means for teachers to gauge whether or not their students understood the lesson. It should not be punishment or a burden for students but a revision exercise.” 

She says when she was a teacher in the 1950s and 1960s, the school head would urge all her teachers to pay special attention to students’ homework because it would show which of them were struggling and needed extra help. The teachers did not punish students who could not do their work but would instead show them more attention. 

“Of course those who were too lazy to do the work would get punished but these were only a few naughty ones who just needed some discipline,” Tan says. 

Yen Wynn: Teachers overload us with homework.
Reinforcement 

While the teachers interviewed concurred that some form of homework is necessary to reinforce what students have learnt, opinions vary on the amount of homework that should be given.  

“It is impossible for students to go home without homework, especially as they progress to upper primary school and have to study more subjects.  

“But of course, the homework must be suitable and the amount must not be a burden on the students. Most Chinese schools practise the system of writing down the day's homework on the blackboard so that the teachers will know how much homework the students already have for the day,” says Chinese primary school teacher Chen Ku Lin.  

For subjects like Mathematics and Physics that involve application of formulae or theories, there is no escaping homework as the only way to understand the subject is by doing questions. 

Upper secondary Chinese school Maths teacher Cheang Mei says, “There is no shortcut in Mathema- tics, students have to practice a variety of questions so that they won't panic during exams. Although we do give a lot of homework, we also take into consideration the amount of homework the other teachers have already given the students. Students can cope if they learn how to manage their time properly and not waste so much time on non-essential things like playing games or chatting on the computer.” 

Retired government school headmistress Sandy Gan however feels homework should be doled out with discretion. 

“Homework should not be given for homework's sake. Teachers actually do not need to give much homework if they are sure their students understand the lessons well.”  

Primary school English teacher S. Gita feels homework or project work for non-examination subjects like Kajian Tempatan and Civics are a waste of time.  

“So much time is used up running to and from the stationery shop to buy materials and binding their scrapbooks when a stapler can do as well. They should really 'scrap' the scrapbooks,” she says. 

Adds Gan who is currently teaching in a private primary school: “Unfortunately, parents equate the lack of homework with teachers not doing their job properly. This is especially so in private schools where parents expect their children to come home with lots of homework as proof of their studies.”  

Of the same view is Mathematics teacher Francis Teoh who says that though teachers have been widely criticised for piling on homework, it is sometimes parents who ask for more work for their children! 

“On the days when I don’t give homework, some parents will come and complain. They want me to assign homework every day as a means of making sure the teachers do their job and their children have work to do,” she says. 

Tan feels that while it is important that parents take an interest in their children’s schoolwork, their role should be that of coach and not major player. 

“Some parents even do the homework for their child. What is the point of this? Parents can coach their child, but they should allow their child to make mistakes too as the child may learn better from his mistakes,” she adds.  

Tan Eng Seng, a father of two college-going sons, feels that children seem to “have things too easy” now.  

“They should learn to chiak kor (a Hokkien term that literally means “eat bitterness”) so that they have some experience in life. Decreasing the amount of homework or making it too much fun will only en- courage students to be lazy,” he says. 

Chinese school burden 

While Chinese schools have a reputation for setting very high academic standards and churning out top performing and hard working students, they are also notorious for the amount of work they pile on their students. 

Says parent Michele: “My daughter really had a miserable time in school. She is generally a good and hard-working student but unfortunately, she is a bit slow in Mandarin and Mathematics – the two subjects most valued in Chinese schools. 

“She would labour over her homework for these two subjects which seemed very tough even for me. Unfortunately, I was not sensitive to what she was going through and kept on nagging her to do more and to do better. 

“This had a really negative effect on her and she started acting up. She used to pretend to be sick and even make herself sick so she would not have to go to school. She would throw away her exercise books and pretend that her bag was stolen and so on.  

“It came to a point when she actually had a nervous breakdown when she was in Form Four. It has been two years and she is still seeing a psychiatrist and is on medication. I don’t know if the school work was the only cause for this but I am sure it contributed to it.” 

Although this may seem an ex- treme case, students from Chinese schools confirm that their workload is excessive. 

Form Three Chinese school student Saw Yen Wynn feels his teachers “overload” the students with homework, sometimes with “non-relevant” homework for non-examination subjects like Physical and Health Edu- cation.  

“I spend between one and three hours on homework daily and this makes it difficult to find time for revision,” he says. 

No time for self 

Form Four student Tan Su Wei admits that sometimes, due to the huge workload, students resort to copying homework assignments from each other. 

“When we have too much homework, some of us do copy from one another just so we can finish it off. I think it defeats the whole purpose of homework in the first place,” says the Chinese school student. 

Su Wei says she usually spends the whole afternoon completing her homework, and despite only attending Bahasa Malaysia tuition and piano class, finds that she hardly has any time for herself. 

Form Five student Saw Vee Mae who usually spends two to three hours on homework a day agrees.  

“Homework for certain subjects like Mathematics and Additional Mathematics is helpful as we need to practise questions. However, English and Bahasa Malaysia homework is not really that helpful,” she says. 

Shares upper primary Bahasa Malaysia teacher Mak Looi Pin:  

“Some parents have complained that their Year One and Two children who are in the afternoon session sometimes stay up till midnight to finish their homework.”  

She says she does not believe in giving too much homework as she feels students should have more time for leisure activities like reading and pursuing hobbies. 

Ashley Davids, a Year Six pupil at a national school says she used to en- joy doing homework, but not anymore. 

“Since I started Year Six, I have more homework than ever. We have homework everyday. The most is for BM where I have to do about 80 questions each day. I also get homework for Mathematics and other subjects, though not as much. I spend between three and five hours a day on homework.  

“On top of this, I go for tuition classes twice a week and my tuition teacher also gives me homework. I don’t enjoy doing homework anymore because it is so boring. But if we don’t do our homework, the teacher will scold us in front of everyone and I guess that is worse,” she laments. 

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